Renal Anatomy

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Renal Anatomy
Renal AnatomyHuman kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spine (see Fig. 11.1). The right kidney is slightly lower and smaller than the left, and is more medial. The level of the left kidney is approximately from the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra to the 3rd lumbar vertebra. The level of the right kidney is slightly lower. The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver. The left kidney is located just below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen.
Organs of the urinary system (Modified from 16.1 Gunstream).
Lee Waite, Ph.D., P.E.; Jerry Fine, Ph.D.: Applied Biofluid Mechanics, Second Edition. Renal Anatomy, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2017), AccessEngineering Export