PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS


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PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS
PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDSPharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) present key properties to bioaccumulate and provoke effects in terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., lipophilic to pass membranes, persistent to be active for long periods) (11). Some examples of PhACs typically found in the environment are 1) human: aspirin, caffeine, paracetamol and 2) veterinary: chloramphenicol, streptomycin, or sulphatrimethoprim. There are two main exposure routes in soils: 1) by treated wastewater reuse for irrigation and biosolids application (human PhACs) and 2) by urine and feces excretion and manure application (veterinary PhACs) (
Citation
Rao Y. Surampalli, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, Dist.M.ASCE; Tian C. Zhang, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, F.ASCE; Satinder Kaur Brar, Ph.D.; Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Ph.D.; Rama Pulicharla, Ph.D.; Mausam Verma, Ph.D.: Handbook of Environmental Engineering. PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018), AccessEngineering Export