INTRODUCTION


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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTIONMining has played an important role in the history of the world's trade and economy. Within some countries mining plays a central role as an engine for national development. Canada's beginning as a nation was initiated by the widespread development of mining activities: from the coal mines of Nova Scotia to the Yukon gold rush. The discovery of iron ore, nickel, copper, and other mineral deposits were key factors in the emergence of the Great Lakes region, which has become an engine for the economic development of both Canada and the United States (1). Mining continues to play an important role in the Canadian economy and represented $79 billion of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in 2015 (
Citation
Rao Y. Surampalli, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, Dist.M.ASCE; Tian C. Zhang, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, F.ASCE; Satinder Kaur Brar, Ph.D.; Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Ph.D.; Rama Pulicharla, Ph.D.; Mausam Verma, Ph.D.: Handbook of Environmental Engineering. INTRODUCTION, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018), AccessEngineering Export